The Basics

To facilitate reform by making available comprehensive and reliable criminal justice data.
To measure every stage of the criminal justice process across the 3,000+ counties in the United States.
A Data Portal that shows how counties are faring in three areas: Fair Process, Public Safety, and Fiscal Responsibility.
To recollect data every two years to show trends and establish baselines. This is a living website meant to be updated and developed over time to ensure it remains helpful to stakeholders.
To provide as much context as possible so that data can be interpreted responsibly.

What We Do


Measures for Justice (MFJ) was founded in 2011 to develop a data-driven set of performance measures to assess and compare the criminal justice process from arrest to post-conviction on a county-by-county basis. The data set comprises measures that address three broad categories: Fiscal Responsibility, Fair Process, and Public Safety.

MFJ developed and tested its first draft set of measures with a grant from the Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Assistance. MFJ gathered some of the finest measurement experts in the country with diverse expertise in the judicial system to isolate useful indicators of system performance and from them develop MFJ’s initial set of measures. These were first piloted in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, and then extended to cover the entire state. Based on the success of that pilot, MFJ received funding to measure more states.

Data collection across a country whose records are maintained differently county by county has required some innovative and old-fashioned methods. MFJ acquires its data by approaching state and local leaders, often traveling county by county. In the process, we solicit feedback on our metrics and counsel on the limitations of the data we’re acquiring. We also share with state and local leaders the purpose of our work. Back in Rochester, NY, our eighteen researchers and technologists with PhD and Master degrees in Criminal Justice, Public Administration, Cognitive Science, and Computer Science from major universities across the U.S. work on cleaning and coding the data. They also work on software automation to streamline the process of cleaning and standardizing data from disparate sources. With this combination of strategies, MFJ is able to aggregate case-level data into one central repository.

This data repository is paramount to MFJ’s mission because transparency in the criminal justice system is paramount to more informed discussions about how it's working. MFJ does not advocate any specific reforms, but we do acknowledge that transparency provides a basis for positive, change-focused dialogue as needed. With this in mind, MFJ has developed a web-based platform that convenes all its data and analyses and offers them free to the public. The platform is searchable and can be configured to break down performance data across multiple factors including race/ethnicity; sex; indigent status; age; and offense type. The platform also allows for county-to-county comparison within and across states.

MFJ’s data platform is unprecedented in scale and scope. It is designed for any user—from criminal justice stakeholders to average citizens interested in how their county is performing—and, in this way, offers up a neutral language that reform initiatives can deploy. MFJ’s goal is to ensure the platform becomes the go-to resource for legislators and advocates—for anyone in a position to initiate and catalyze criminal justice reform.

Measures for Justice is supported by the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, Google.org, MacArthur's Safety and Justice Challenge, the Laura and John Arnold, Pershing Square, Draper Richards Kaplan, and Open Society Foundations, in addition to the Bureau for Justice Assistance in the Department of Justice.

Our Principles


We believe that the proper functioning of our criminal justice system depends on the achievement of three goals.

  • Fair Process: defendants should be treated fairly through the protection of due process rights.

  • Public Safety: a well-functioning society needs to protect all of its members from the harm of crime.

  • Fiscal Responsibility: the criminal justice system needs to be accountable to the taxpayers in terms of investing resources on effective and proven practices where they are needed.


Sound evidence must come from rigorous measurement and adhere to the principles of social science inquiry. To that end, above all else, we pursue excellence in data collection aimed at improving the justice system.


MFJ was created to provide data and measurement for county-level criminal justice systems. Our goal is to present facts and figures, not to agitate for reform that extends beyond improving data collection and recording at the county level. We do not implement or advocate for policies and programs. We leave this process to others.


Every data point is tagged to someone’s experience with the criminal justice system, be it defendants, prosecutors, judges, or defense attorneys. Thus we are invested in making sure your voices, feedback, and input are a part of our process. We work with a broad network of researchers, statisticians, and policymakers, following a science-based, collaborative approach.


Developing performance measures that make sense is no easy task. Likewise, collecting county-level data from multiple sources. This is why we have made it a priority to ensure our data are as valid, meaningful, and accurate as possible via a robust audit system.


Measuring justice has to be a communal effort. We want to ignite a dialogue among stakeholders and practitioners about how best to measure performance. Debate breeds improvements and better data.


Innovations in measurement can help find ways to develop new tools and services that speak to the needs of people who interact with the justice system. Measurement can have an impact only if it reaches the people who will benefit from it. Thus we are always striving to refine and advance our process.


  1. 2010

    Amy Bach publishes Ordinary Injustice: How America Holds Court, which attests to the need for county-level comparative measurement.

  2. 2010

    Ordinary Injustice wins the 2010 Robert F. Kennedy Book Award

  3. 2010

    The New York Times publishes Amy Bach’s Op-Ed "Justice by the Numbers."

  4. 2011

    Measures for Justice founded as a nonprofit.

  5. 2011

    Echoing Green provides MFJ with seed money.

  6. 2011

    MFJ puts together a Data Council of criminal justice measurement experts to draft a first set of the Measures.

  7. 2012

    MFJ completes a proof-of-concept study using federal data.

  8. 2013

    The Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Assistance awards MFJ a federal grant to pilot its first set of Measures in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin.

  9. 2013

    MFJ exceeds expectation and measures all 72 counties in Wisconsin.

  10. 2013

    MFJ receives critical early support from the Draper Richards Kaplan and Ford Foundations (among others).

  11. 2014

    Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study funds MFJ to conduct the exploratory seminar, "Does Measurement Matter to Criminal Justice Reform in America? A Multidisciplinary Forum on Measurement in the Health Care, Environment, and Education Sectors."

  12. 2014

    The Bureau of Justice Assistance awards MFJ a second federal grant to test the Measures with Wisconsin stakeholders.

  13. 2014

    The Pershing Square Foundation becomes an angel investor to pilot the Measures in five more states, and to develop a prototype for a web-based data visualization and interaction platform.

  14. 2015

    The MacArthur Foundation awards MFJ a grant to work with the Administrative Office of the Illinois Courts to measures five counties.

  15. 2015

    MFJ gathers and launches the Methods and Measurement Council to review and revise the Measures to ensure they are valid, accurate, and meaningful.

  16. 2015

    The MacArthur Foundation's Safety and Justice Challenge awards MFJ a grant to measure Arizona and Missouri and to develop benchmarks for the Measures for Justice.

  17. 2015

    MFJ begins a door-to-door supplemental data collection process.

  18. 2016

    MFJ develops a beta version of its web-based data visualization tool.

  19. 2016

    The Laura and John Arnold Foundation awards MFJ a grant to pursue strategies to automate and streamline data collection.

  20. 2017

    Google.org awards Measures for Justice $1.5 million to help measure criminal justice system performance in California.

  21. 2017

    The Chan Zuckerberg Initiative awards Measures for Justice a grant to support their work to measure 20 states by 2020.

  22. 2017

    Measures for Justice launches its Data Portal with six states' worth of comparative criminal justice data.

  23. 2017

    Ballmer Group supports MFJ's goal to measure 20 states by 2020.

  24. 2018

    The New York Times publishes Amy Bach’s Op-Ed "Missing: Criminal Justice Data."

  25. 2018

    MFJ launches Data Fellows program in Pinellas and Pasco Counties to help implement Florida’s historic data collection bill.

  26. 2018

    The Charles Bronfman Prize names Amy Bach as the 2018 recipient.

  27. 2019

    Amy Bach wins the Academy of Criminal Justice Science’s Academy Leadership and Innovation Award.

  28. 2019

    USA Today Publishes: "Criminal justice reform is great. But where's the data to show us whether it's working?”

  29. 2019

    MFJ and Stanford Law School release a report on California’s Criminal Justice Data Gap.